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        Osmium

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        Osmium

        EINECS 231-114-0
        CAS No. 7440-04-2 Density 22.48 g/cm3
        Solubility Melting Point 3045 °C(lit.)

        Formula Os Boiling Point 5027 °C(lit.)
        Molecular Weight 190.20 Flash Point
        Transport Information Appearance
        Safety Poison by intravenous route. An irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. The principal effects of exposure are ocular disturbances and an asthmatic condition caused by inhalation. Furthermore, it causes dermatitis and ulceration of the skin upon contact. When osmium is heated, it gives off a pungent, poisonous fume of osmium tetroxide. One case of osmium poisoning reported in the literature resulted from the inhalation of osmium, which gave rise to a capillary bronchitis and dermatitis. The tetroxide vapor has a pronounced and nauseating odor that should be taken as a warning of a possibly toxic concentration in the atmosphere, and personnel should immediately move to an area of fresh air. The metal itself is not highly toxic. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Slight explosion hazard in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction or ignition with chlorine trichloride or oxygen difluoride. Ignites when heated to 100°C with fluorine. Incandescent reaction in phosphorus vapor. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of OsO4. See also OSMIUM TETROXIDE. Risk Codes
        Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7440-04-2 (Osmium) Hazard Symbols Highly toxic; irritant to skin.
        Synonyms

        NSC 607770;NSC 607771;NSC 607772;

         

        Osmium Chemical Properties

        Molecular Structure:

        IUPAC Name: Osmium
        Empirical Formula: Os
        Molecular Weight: 190.23 g/mol
        EINECS: 231-114-0
        Density: 22,48 g/cm3
        Boiling Point: 5027 °C
        Melting point: 3045 °C
        Solubility: Slightly soluble in water
        Appearance: Black powder
        Form: Sponge
        Product Categories of Osmium (CAS NO.7440-04-2): Inorganics;Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;Osmium
         

        Osmium History

          Osmium (CAS NO.7440-04-2)  is found in nature as an alloy, mostly in platinum ores. It was discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant and William Hyde Wollaston in London, England, and was published in 1748. In 1803, Smithson Tennant analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal, and, in 1908 cheaper catalysts based on iron and iron oxides were introduced for the first pilot plants. Nowadays, it is primarily obtained from the processing of platinum and nickel ores.

        Osmium Uses

         Osmium (CAS NO.7440-04-2) is a hard, brittle, blue-gray or blue-black transition metal in the platinum family, and is also used in alloys, with platinum, iridium and other platinum group metals.

        Osmium Production

         Osmium (CAS NO.7440-04-2) is obtained as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.  In order to separate the metals, they must first be brought into solution.After being dissolved, it is separated from the other platinum group metals by distillation or extraction with organic solvents of the volatile osmium tetroxide

        Osmium Toxicity Data With Reference

        Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
        dog LDLo intravenous 17mg/kg (17mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

        LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

        GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
        Scottish Medical and Surgical Journal. Vol. 26, Pg. 131, 1826.

        Osmium Consensus Reports

        Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

        Osmium Safety Profile

        Poison by intravenous route. An irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. The principal effects of exposure are ocular disturbances and an asthmatic condition caused by inhalation. Furthermore, it causes dermatitis and ulceration of the skin upon contact. When osmium is heated, it gives off a pungent, poisonous fume of osmium tetroxide. One case of osmium poisoning reported in the literature resulted from the inhalation of osmium, which gave rise to a capillary bronchitis and dermatitis. The tetroxide vapor has a pronounced and nauseating odor that should be taken as a warning of a possibly toxic concentration in the atmosphere, and personnel should immediately move to an area of fresh air. The metal itself is not highly toxic. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Slight explosion hazard in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction or ignition with chlorine trichloride or oxygen difluoride. Ignites when heated to 100°C with fluorine. Incandescent reaction in phosphorus vapor. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of OsO4. See also OSMIUM TETROXIDE.
        Hazard Codes: FlammableF,IrritantXi
        Risk Statements: 11-37/38-41-36/38 
        R11: Highly flammable. 
        R36/38: Irritating to eyes and skin. 
        R37/38: Irritating to respiratory system and skin. 
        R41: Risk of serious damage to the eyes.
        Safety Statements: 16-26-36/37/39 
        S16: Keep away from sources of ignition. 
        S26: In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. 
        S36/37/39: Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.

        Osmium Specification

         Osmium ,its cas register number is 7440-04-2. It also can be called Osmium, elemental ;and Metallic osmium . It is the densest natural element, making it twice as dense as lead; and,  reacts with oxygen at room temperature forming volatile osmium tetroxide. Some osmium compounds are also converted to the tetroxide if oxygen is present. Osmium possesses quite remarkable chemical and physical properties.Only its two compounds have major applications: osmium tetroxide — for staining tissue in electron microscopy and the non-volatile osmates for organic oxidation reactions. It has seven naturally occurring isotopes, six of which are stable: 184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, and (most abundant) 192Os. 186Os .Within the Earth's crust, like iridium, Osmium (CAS NO.7440-04-2) is found at highest concentrations in three types of geologic structure: igneous deposits,impact craters, and deposits reworked from one of the former structures.

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